***Ervin Davis, the creator and maintainer of this website, passed away April 22, 2007.

His family can still be contacted through his old email address, edavis3625@aol.com
Please continue to sign the guestbook. He always loved to hear from fellow Vets and researchers..!

Nyob zoo ! ... page three

Southeast Asian History
and the Hmong

The following is only a brief exploration of the history of the Hmong peoples, so no -NO- attempt is being made to enter 'every word' of their history, but rather only to provide a time line showing the appearances of the Hmong, as compared to other noteworthy events elsewhere.

For those of you who want to learn more about the Hmong and other tribal peoples, I hope these pages stimulate you to begin , or continue, your research.

But first, to discover who the Hmong are, we also need to examine some world events through time and see where China, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand , Burma, Tibet, the Hmong and their ancestors fit into the history of South East Asia.

A Brief Glimpse Into
Southeast Asian History and the Hmong

Page Three

          • Page One .......... 75 Million B.C. to 2,500 B.C.
          • Page Two .......... 2,500 B.C. to 483 B.C.
          • Page Three .......... 483 B.C. to 650 A.D.
          • Page Four ......... 650 A.D. to

483 B.C.

Elsewhere : In India, Gautama Siddharta the Buddha died at age believed to be eighty, and thus was probably born in 563 BC..

338 B.C.

Chinese Chronicles describe the ancestors of present day Hmong ("free men") as an ancient people the Chinese called Meo, --Meow, Miao, Maeo-- ("barbarians". "savages"), who lived in the vicinity of the Yellow River Valley in southwestern Mainland China, in the provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Hunan.

Lao political entities first appeared in Chinese Dynastic Chonicles, where they were identified as Ai Lao or Nan Chao in 338 B.C.

NOTE : The Hmong (known by the Chinese as the : Meo, Meow, Miao, Maeo) occupied south-western China before the arrival of the Chinese.
NOTE : The Chinese term of 'Miao" , had several varations thru time : "Miao" (Meo) to "Miao-Man" or "Man-Miao", "Wuling Man," 'Wuxi Man," or simply "Man," and then eventually back to "Miao" (Meo). So keep this in mind when researching the term : "Miao" (Meo).

For several hundred years, the central Chinese government, dominated by Han Chinese, basically left the Hmong alone, as long as they paid their tributes to the Chinese.

The Nineteen Hmong Clans

There are five main branches of Hmong living in China :
    • Hong ( Red )
    • Hei ( Black )
    • Bai ( White )
    • Hua ( Flowery )
    • Qing ( Green )
Clans may also have subclans.
There are nineteen ( 19 ) Hmong Clans ( Xeem ) in China and Laos.
Clan members include a male ancestor, his sons and unmarried daughters, and the children of his sons, going back 160 or more generations, who customarily do not marry members of the same clan, nor to members of certain other clans.
The traditional nineteen (19 ) Hmong Clans, with their spelling variations, are listed alphabeticly as follows :
      • Chang / Chai
      • Cheng
      • Chue / Tsue
      • Kong (Cong) / Song
      • Kue / Kwm
      • Khang / Kha
      • Fang
      • Hang
      • Her / Herr / Heu
      • Lao / Lo / Lor
      • Lee / Ly / Li
      • Moua
      • Pha / Phang
      • Tang
      • Thao / Thoj / Thor / Thow / Torr
      • Va / Vang / Vangh
      • Vu / Vue
      • Xiong / Shong / Siong
      • Ya / Yang

Chinese Chronicles mentioned a race of people in the south of China and northern Laos, known as Ai Lao and Nan Chao in 338 B.C.

In the 8th century Khun Lo, the eldest son of the ruler of Nan Chao,moved south and founded a kingdom called Chiang Dkong (Chiang Tong), today known as Luang Prabang (lw�ng' pr�-b�ng') , (Louangphrabang) , of Laos.
      NOTE : The founder of the city of Luang Prabang brought from ancient Cambodia (Khmer) a treasured mystical golden statue of Lord Buddha that is known by the name of "Pra Bang" . "Luang" is short for "Nakhon Luang" ( which means "Capital") , and "Pra" (means "Holy"). So "Luang Prabang" can be roughly translated as "Capital of the Holy Bang".
      NOTE : One of the historical survival importances of the power of the "Pra Bang" image is the belief that if this image is taken in cerimonial procession around the town it will rain, and as a result bless favorable crop growth.
      NOTE : Luang Prabang was also the 22 year home of the
      Emerald Buddha ( Pra Kaew ).

221 B.C.

Construction of the Great Wall of China , [ 2 ] began in the 7th century B.C. , when separatist states in the north built walls around their territories to ward off invasions from neighbouring states. In 221 B.C. Qin Shi Huangdi unified China from seven Warring States then linked and extended these walls, that today measure 6,400 kilometers (4,000 miles) long.

213 B.C.

Chin Tain Shihuangti, emporer of China, issued a decree that all books (pictographs) should be destroyed (manuscripts on bamboo), hence erasing most of the ancient history of mankind in Asia.

150 B.C.

The first paper is made in China from macerated hemp fibers in water suspension.

1 A.D.

NOTE : Oldest surviving 'original' Buddhist scrolls ever discovered date from the first century A.D. and are being translated, here.

9 A.D.

China : From 9 to 23 A.D. Wang Mang ai is Emperor of China

33 A.D.

Elsewhere : Around 33 A.D. Jesus Christ was crucified. Christian beliefs are born, 33 A.D. and onward as the word is spread.

39 A.D.

Elsewhere : Northwest of Hanoi Vietnam , on the Red River, in the village of Tay Vu, lived two sisters, Trung Trac and Trung Nhi, who led a rebellion against Chinese rule in Vietnam , which was caused when the Chinese attempted to raise taxes and consolidate their control over the "Lac Lords," the indigenous landed aristocracy in occupied Vietnam. Their father was a "Lac Lord". They drove the Chinese from Vietnam but when the Chinese returned with an Army, in the year 41, most of their supporters were defeated, then abandoned them, leaving them to be captured by the Chinese in A.D 41 when Trung Trac and with her sister Trung Nhi committed suicide, then have become folk heros ever since.

50 A.D.

Elsewhere : Around 50 A.D. to 100 A.D. Buddhism reaches China.

Old Time Sayings

      One ant may destroy a whole dam.
      Better do a good deed near your home, than go far away to burn incense.
      Better to light a candle, than to curse the darkness.
      A clear conscience, never fears the knocking on the door at midnight.
      Distant water won't help to put out a nearby fire.
      A dog won't forsake his master because he is poor.
      Dream different dreams while on the same bed.
      Even a rabbit will bite when cornered.
      Flies never visit an egg that has no crack.
      He who asks is a fool for a minute, he who does not ask is a fool forever.
      If you bow, bow low.
      If you do not study hard when young you'll end up a failure when old.
      If you must gamble, decide on 3 things at the start :
      ............... ( 1.) the game rules, ( 2.) the stakes, ( 3.) the quitting time.
      If you want 1 year of prosperity, grow corn.
      ............... If you want 10 years of prosperity, grow a forest.
      ............... If you want 100 years of prosperity, grow a large family.
      To know the mind of a man, listen to his words.
      Kill one to warn a hundred.
      Knowledge is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere.
      Make happy those who are near, and those who are far will come.
      Never write a letter while you are angry.
      Once bitten by a snake, you forever scared at the mere sight of a rope.
      Do not surrender tears, until you see the coffin.
      A single conversation with a wise man, is better than years of study.
      A sly rabbit will have three openings to its den.
      Sow much, reap much. Sow little, reap little.
      To know the road ahead, ask those coming back.
      To understand the love of your parents, you must raise your own children.
      When you want to test the depth of a stream, don't use both feet.

122 A.D.

Elsewhere : In North Britain, for the next fourteen (14) years the Romans are building a wall seventy-three (73) miles long and fifteen (15) feet tall as protection against raids.

220 A.D.

Last Han emperor deposed in China (220 A.D.)
China divides into three kingdoms (220 A.D.)

NOTE : Chinese documents (Classics) that have been maintained for 5,000 years include several referances to the 'Miao" , such as the 'Zhanguo ce' ("Intrigues of the Warring States") and the "Shiji' ("Records of the Historians). Years later, after the Han Dynasty in 220 A.D., the people known as "Miao" seem to have disappeared from historical records until the Song Dynasty (A.D. 947-1279).

243 A.D.

The first embassy from Funan (an area of present-day Cambodia) arrives at the Chinese Imperial court, with some musicians and Funan's produces as tribute to the Chinese Emperor.

248 A.D.

Elsewhere : In Thanh Hoa province of North Vietnam, Trieu Thi Trinh (known as Ba Trieu, or Lady Trieu) was the daughter of a village chief. Trieu Thi Trinh led a revolt against the Chinese occupation policies and presence of the aggressive state of Champa to the south. When the Champa fought Chinese troops near the border of Cuu Chan in A.D. 248 , the local population erupted in a revolt led by Lady Trieu. After several months of battle, the rebel population was suppressed, and Lady Trieu then committed suicide at a age of 23.
The memory of Lady Trieu and the revolt she inspired became famous in Vietnamese history and legend. Popular belief described her as leading followers to the battle on the back of an elephant. She is today one of the leading figure in the pantheon of Vietnamese heroes struggling against the Chinese invader

271 A.D.

Compass is invented in China ( 271 A.D. )

311 A.D.

A search for salt has always been a need for the Hmong as far back as they can remember. The first recorded trade of salt between the Hmong and the Chinese was during the Northern and Southern Dynasties (311-580 AD).

Elsewhere : Nomadic invasions of China (c.300 - 500 A.D.)

320 A.D.

Elsewhere : India : Rise of Gupta empire in Ganges Valley, India

386 A.D.

Beginning of era of north-south division in China (lasting until 589 A.D.)

400 A.D.

Elsewhere : First records of Japanese history are kept. ( 400 A.D. )

Elsewhere : Sanskrit is becoming established as the literary language of India and the Hindu epics are written down in it.

478 A.D.

Elsewhere : Jayavarman (r. c. 478 - d. 514), is King of Funan (an area of present-day Cambodia)
A Funanese trade mission returning from southern China is raided by the Chams of Linyi.

484 A.D.

Elsewhere : King of Funan (a part of present-day Cambodia) sends a Buddhist monk named Nagasena to China.

500 A.D.

Elsewhere : India : Around 500 A.D. to 515 A.D. the Huns, a nomadic central Asian people, destroy the powerful Gupta Empire of India.

536 A.D.

In China, a meteorite impact or near miss , (as confirmed from tree ring samples and world wide weather change observations) result in the Chinese claiming : "the stars were lost from view for three months." The sun dimmed, the rain failed, and snow fell in the summertime. Famine spread, and the Emperor of China abandoned his capital amid political and economic disasters.
This was confirmed all over Europe, where their tree rings confirm between AD 536 to at least AD 545, what has been referenced by Mediterranean writers about a severe "dry fog" or "dust veil" in the year 536 .
Also confirmed from Polar Ice core drillings.
Crop failures and famines are also recorded around the world in the late 530s.
In Europe they reported : "We marvel to see no shadows of our bodies at noon, to feel the mighty vigor of the sun's heat wasted into feebleness,"
Italian historian Flavius Cassiodorus wrote. "We have summer without heat. The crops have been chilled by north winds, the rain is denied."

Then came the pestilence of the Justinian plague, (named for a Byzantine emperor), apparently began in China, central Asia, spread into Egypt, and then swept across Europe.

Other catastrophic environmental situations are also noted to have occured at 1628 B.C., and 1159 B.C..

NOTE : Need for global defence is being discussed by Scientists also considering impact damage potentials and hazards.

541 A.D.

Bubonic Plague (Justinian Plague) - from 541 to 544 A.D., with a population loss of 50-60% in Europe and countless lives lost throughout Asia.

570 A.D.

Elsewhere : Mohammed, the Prophet of Islam, is born in Mecca .

605 A.D.

Chinese build Grand Canal to link Yangtze with Chang�an (605-10 A.D.)

636 A.D.

Elsewhere : Muslims conquer Syria, Persia and Egypt (636 to 651 A.D.)

650 A.D.

Successive migrations from central Asia into territory already inhabited by the Negrito peoples.

Although a few Thai groups (ethnically related to the Shan of Myanmar and the Lao of Laos) migrated to the northern hill country of Thailand, the main body of Thais remained in Yunnan, China, where by A.D. 650 they had organized the independent kingdom of Nanchao.
By 1000, however, the Chinese had overrun Nanchao (650-1250 A.D.) and made it a tributary state. With the destruction of the kingdom of Nanchao by the Mongols under Kublai Khan in 1253, the slow infiltration of Thailand from China and Laos turned into a mass migration.
By that time the Khmer Empire was well established in the Chao Phraya valley and on the Khorat plateau.
Elsewhere : Revelations of Mohammed are written, and they become the Koran.

History of the Hmong's Southeast Asia

          • Page One .......... 75 Million B.C. to 2,500 B.C.
          • Page Two .......... 2,500 B.C. to 483 B.C.
          • Page Three .......... 483 B.C. to 650 A.D.
          • Page Four ......... 650 A.D. to

And now it's up to you !

"He who asks is a fool for five minutes,
but he who does not ask remains a fool forever."

-- Old Chinese saying

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This 9 May 2000 page was done by WebMaster : Ervin Davis
Last Up-dated ; 6 January 2001

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